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एफ.एल.एन और बहुभाषी कक्षा शिक्षण

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आजकल यह एक ट्रेंड सा चल पड़ा है कि जैसे ही राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर किसी संवैधानिक प्रावधान या किसी दस्तावेज में किसी नए शब्द का उल्लेख होता है, तो हम उसी के इर्द- गिर्द ही देखना शुरू कर देते हैं| हम यह भूल जाते हैं कि यह जो नया शब्द आया है, वह हमारे किसी न किसी पिछली अवधारणा से जुड़ा होगा, जिसके आधार पर हम उस नए शब्द या प्लान को अधिक बेहतर ढंग से क्रियान्वित कर सकते हैं|
जी हाँ, आप बिल्कुल सही समझ रहे हैं| मैं बात कर रहा हूँ भारत की नई राष्ट्रीय शिक्षा नीति-2020 में उल्लिखित FLN मिशन की| इसमें क्या है? इसमें मुख्य रूप से बुनियादी भाषा साक्षरता और बुनियादी गणितीय संक्रियाओं पर बच्चे को दक्ष करने की बात कही गई है| पर हम इसमें यह नहीं सोच पाते कि बुनियादी भाषा साक्षरता और बुनियादी गणितीय संक्रियाओं की अवधारणा को बच्चों में मजबूत करने के लिए हमें किसी न किसी रूप में भाषा की ही आवश्यकता होगी| पर वह भाषा कौन सी होगी, यह जानना बहुत आवश्यक हो जाता है | हम FLN के इस लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए सीधे पाठ्यपुस्तक की भाषा (शिक्षण के माध्यम की भाषा) को इससे जोड़कर देखना शुरु कर देते हैं |

मेरे हिसाब से यह ठीक नहीं है,क्योंकि इसी भारत की नई राष्ट्रीय शिक्षा नीति-2020 में यह भी उल्लिखित है कि बच्चा अपनी मातृभाषा में ही सबसे बेहतर ढंग से सीखता है| बिना बच्चे की समझ की भाषा के हम किसी भी बच्चे में बुनियादी भाषा साक्षरता और गणितीय संक्रियाओं का ज्ञान नहीं करा सकते| आपको तो यह भी पता ही है कि हर कक्षा बहुभाषी है और हर कक्षा ही क्यों हर आदमी जब बहुभाषी है तो फिर पाठ्यपुस्तक की भाषा हमारे इस लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने में कैसे उपयोगी होगी?
यह एक बड़ी चिंता की बात है कि हम FLN और बहुभाषी शिक्षण को अलग-अलग ढंग से तथा अलग-अलग रूप में देख रहे हैं  जब हम इन्हें अलग- अलग सोचकर इसके आधार पर कोई योजना बनाते हैं तो नीचे स्तर पर यह बात बहुत मजबूती से चली जाती है कि ये दोनों बहुत अलग-अलग हैं| जबकि हमको इसे इस रुप में देखना होगा कि यह FLN एक लक्ष्य है जिसे बहुभाषी शिक्षण के अप्रोच या माध्यम से ही प्राप्त किया जा सकता है| जब तक हम इन्हें समग्र रूप में नहीं समझेंगे ,तब तक FLN के लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करना केवल एक सपना ही होगा|

Languages in Indian Schools

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Articles 29 and 30 of the Indian constitution safeguards the rights of linguistic, cultural, and religious minorities. Thus, Cultural and Educational Rights mandates that citizens have the right to preserve their culture and language, and majority linguistic groups cannot impose their language on them. This has to be taken into account when education policies are formulated at different times. However, the school as a standardized monolingual model set up by colonial rules has not yet been able to articulate this spirit of the constitution and education policies, and there is a massive gap between the minds of the policy formulators and the teachers. Teachers are limited to a syllabus, and the largely textbook transaction is focused on preparing children for exams. This is done by offering them a load of information that has to be mastered through rote memory, and mostly in a language that the children may not be familiar with. The national goal of helping children move out of their small tribal groups and making them into national and global beings, while still retaining a strong connection with their local culture, remains an imagined ideal. The process of disseminating the national goal rarely reaches teacher training institutions, and ‘critical thinking’ remains outside a teacher’s comprehension.

As long as the school is monolingual, and the children are multilingual, there will be no way that the school and its system will be able to accommodate different languages and cultures in its teaching and its curriculum. Another barrier is that even if the state has the political will to implement a multilingual approach, they do not know how to proceed since this is largely untested and there are very limited frames of references in the Indian context. Education policies provide states the freedom to prepare their own curriculum in their state-specific language, and design content to represent their identity in the textbooks. To this end,  state textbook writers pick up some cultural symbols from their states like a great man, some temples,  random ecological species, heritage of cultural significance, as tokenism to state identity. Briefly, this is the macro curriculum. What it does not include is the sub-cultural systems, which represent the majority of the population of that state. The language and culture of a state, thus defined in their textbooks, can in no way reflect all the languages and customs of that place unless textbook writing is decentralized all the way down to districts and distinct sub-district linguistic areas. For a truly representative and integrated curriculum, there needs to be clarity of the national goal of education. A national curriculum means it must represent a village curriculum at the school. How does this take place?

The scope for inclusion of state specificity in a curriculum is possible at best in social sciences, and literature and language. The states of India do have a standard mathematics framework adopted universally. In the case of science, the local nomenclature of biology or natural science finds no mention in the textbooks. Students grapple with technical botanical words as if these objects are not in their environment. For instance, many students will stumble over a mouthful of bassia longifolia or basia latifolia, a botanical name in their science textbook, which is more popularly known as mahua to the tribal and rural students. But they will learn it without being able to connect it to what they are already familiar with. While mango in the Saora language is called ‘uda’, it is known as ‘amba’ in Odia, but in a botany textbook, it is named Mangifera Indica! The Teachers’ so-called expertise is based on and limited to textbooks since their accountability is derived from their students’ achievement in the examination, which is standardized and based on textbook terminologies.

An important precondition for meaningful learning is the child’s language. When a child observes her nature and social environment, she is using her home language to make sense of it, whatever that language may be! She has not made any distinction in her mind between her mother tongue, first language, home language, or local language. She thinks, analyzes, interprets, and also uses creative speech with deep meaning and with an ability to communicate and receive the discourse of the language she is most familiar with. It means she can decode and go down to the deep sense of her language, ie, the hidden meaning. But when the same child goes to a class and her teacher rejects her language and her words for objects, she is familiar with, she starts withdrawing from the class. For example, her teacher will show her a picture of a mango, a fish, and an elephant, and insist that they call them not as ‘udaa’, ‘aaya’, ‘raa’ respectively, but with new words she has never heard. Consider this from a child’s point of view- her teacher has rejected her experience, her language, her belief, in front of the whole class. This experience in which the child suffers in silence can have a severe psychological effect on her. She is left thinking, what must the rest of the children be thinking about me, about my language? Simultaneously, this incident may have caused other children in the classroom to close their lips with a fear of being humiliated by the teacher. This suffering in silence and in turn staying silent cannot be good for a child’s development. This is a general scenario of rural and Indian classroom where every day, millions of children are denied the chance to speak in their language. Even in some English medium schools for high society, children are stopped from speaking in their language and if at all they use it, they are either punished or their parents are summoned and asked to restrain their children from speaking the home language. Semi-literate parents also start practicing English at their home in an attempt to socialize their child into this power-laden language. This restriction from all sides inflicted upon the child is undoubtedly against their natural development, and is bad for their cognitive growth and self-identity. Such rejection and hate cannot help build a nation, which prides itself on having its own knowledge system.

The Kothari Commission uses two terms. One is ‘National Integration’ which allowed for scheduled languages to be used in school and colleges, and the second is ‘Social Integration’ which was for the rest of the society to support nonscheduled languages in their social domain. In what way can language, culture, identity, and knowledge be legitimized so that an Indian Knowledge system is established in schools? Can national integration be achieved through legitimizing some scheduled languages, while depriving recognition to a majority of non- scheduled languages? To our knowledge, multilinguality and the many languages in India has connected different ethnic and religious groups, rather than dividing them. A Hindi poet using Urdu and Persian in her modern poetry or short stories has never been a contentious issue. Similarly, without the nonscheduled languages, no national language can develop.

NEP 2020’s aspiration for promoting multilingualism in schools is a welcome step, but the advocacy of the three language formula to promote this repeats Kothari Commission’s dichotomy between national integration and social integration, rather than resolve it. In essence, it means that states can decide the medium of instruction in schools by choosing the home language/ mother-tongue/ local language and regional language, wherever possible. But which language is appropriate where and how will the state decide which language to choose, when they do not have the expertise or even school wise linguistic data? How will children coming with knowledge of more than two languages use their language in the classroom? The state has a huge challenge to develop foundational literacy with a focus on comprehension and meaning-making through the child’s language. However, many states are keen to use English from class-I itself to provide global opportunities to their children. The fallacy that by learning English, their children will excel in the worldwide market is ingrained in most literate and semi-literate people When children are not achieving competency in a regional language after studying it for ten years, as evidence from the achievement results in Hindi in Secondary school level indicate, how can the same students excel in academic English and compete for the global market? If this is the condition of those students whose mother tongue is not different from the medium of instruction in schools, then what about the tribal and other students whose home language is foreign from the state medium of instruction?

Therefore the flexible approach suggested by the NEP 2020 may seem like a breakthrough. However, over the last 60 years, the issue of using a child’s mother tongue has been part of almost all national policies on education, which most states have not included in their planning or implemented in their state curriculum. There could be two reasons for this lack of connection between policy documents and what happens in the states. One could be that the system is not interested in plunging into the intricacies of languages in education and is more interested in maintaining the status quo. Two, it could be to do with the process through which such a  programme is to be made possible. The Indian states have a lot of independence in deciding the language of education and none so far paid it adequate attention or have successfully managed to come up with a model that can be replicated or used as a model by other states. Mere preparation of bridge language courses and bilingual dictionaries is not multilingual education. It needs theoretical pedagogical underpinnings which are patiently tried and tested in classrooms, and investment of time and human energy to see how the imagined multilinguality works out in the schools. If we take the school as the actual representation of the social knowledge along with the new understanding of the school curriculum, then there can be a connection between the local knowledge and broader Indian knowledge.

Multilinguality can be like a buffet where a variety of food and dishes is on offer. At a buffet, we are interested in trying everything, and we will not think about eating one kind of food or dish exclusively. Let’s put it another way. The word ‘multi’ exists in all walks of life. Its importance and need are denied or restricted. However, in schools by imposing uniformity in terms of a singular language, this necessary human natural order is violated, and by this human experience is deprived of resources that can help them navigate and resolve the wider realities of life. The use of many languages in society has enriched human knowledge and fostered integration. Using many languages in oral and written forms enhances the human brain in understanding self and positioning the other with the self. Denial of multilinguality means denial of a rich human potentiality of a child and restricts him from knowing this wide, varied world, right from their childhood.

There are of course practical problems in implementing multilingual approach. A state does grapple with the multiple languages of children within its border. How many languages will they prepare their material in? The language transition plan is also a major constraint for the curriculum designers who perceive language education from a conventional framework. Using multilinguality in the classroom is a departure from the standard monolingual ideology and delves into a democratic multilingual ideology, which not everyone is familiar with. However, these problems should not be the reason for not trying to implement it. For each case, various models and methods could be developed, keeping the learning outcome as the final goal. For instance, the tribal languages in schools need special intervention. In rural areas and urban areas, the typology of the school is already different. In a diverse system, if children’s freedom of learning in their languages is the primary objective, the process of achieving it in different schools could be different. The children will achieve the same desired goal with equal competence, working and learning within their socio-cultural context, and this is perhaps the objective of NEP, 2020.

A good case study of how children’s mother tongue can be successfully adopted in school education is the state of Odisha. It has adopted 21 tribal languages in 1500 schools by appointing special language teachers and providing culturally responsive textbooks in tribal languages.  Two decades of state political will and efforts by the government have led to translating the community demand for using their mother tongue in primary schools into multilingual education in tribal schools. While the NEP  provides a space for mother tongue in school education, it is essential to look into the multilingual education programmes of other states as well. To accommodate an unwritten language in school,  may take a long time but the result is both inclusive and positive. The mindset of educators to immediately achieve high learning outcomes without providing appropriate time and learning input is a problem in the system. Teachers in village schools are unable to understand the critical aspects of the national goals. Whether it is Total Quality Education, or Comprehensive and Continuous Education, or Learning Outcome movement, the wave of guidelines ends in mere information gathering, and the objective is limited to satisfy higher authorities with a show of evidence of each schools’ performance. The primary purpose is something else that almost always turns into data collection. When a programme is not grounded well in the field, then information gathering becomes a state-driven ritual where the teachers become information providers. At no level is the gathered information used as a means to understand ground realities or use it to act critically in resolving school-specific issues. For teachers, it means if you have looked at the data, explored the issues, and understood why somethings are not working, then you are the best person to resolve it through a native approach. Resolving language issues in the classroom is possible when teachers use multiple methods from their classroom situations and not through a prescriptive approach that is not grounded in their reality. Perhaps, the system needs to prepare such teachers, rather than those who act as the agents of state apparatus without their own agency, following the guidelines as employees, and perform their routine work.

It takes decades to validate an unwritten language or for a home language to get into the classroom language. Languages also follow a  hierarchy and are closely linked to caste status, and in some cases, issues of untouchability. It is the system’s responsibility to schedule a language in the classroom and to provide equal status to all languages in the school. The Santali language as a speech community revitalized their language in the VIIIth schedule after a long struggle of 30 years, and now their language is the marker of achieving knowledge and power. There was a time when the current state languages were also grappling with language identity before stronger languages such as Arabic, Persian, or English. A broad vision and farsightedness are required for the system to realize its dream of transforming the schools with the Indian knowledge system expressed in many Indian languages of the children.

The author, Mahendra Kumar Mishra is the Advisor for Multilingual Education at Language and Learning Foundation, New Delhi. Previously, he served as the State Coordinator for Multilingual Education in School and Mass Education Department, Odisha. Email: mkmmle.llf@gmail.com

Har Ghar School – ENSURING ALL CHILDREN ARE LEARNING BEYOND ‘THE DIGITAL DIVIDE’

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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a severe learning crisis amongst young children. Many children in rural areas of India are the hardest to reach due to unreliable digital infrastructure and non-systematic access to technology. With the crisis predicted to continue into the next few months in India, schools will remain closed thus presenting an immediate need to re-imagine education. While student-teacher interaction, classroom processes and, peer learning support were the foundations to ensure quality learning in classrooms, education programs now must ensure that children are learning in the absence of these factors. The importance of developing foundational literacy skills in young children has never been more significant.

Language and Learning Foundation (LLF) is focused on improving language learning outcomes in Early Grades over the past five years. Being a pioneer in the field of Early Language and Literacy, the organization is directly impacting 90,000 children across the states of India namely Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Through the crisis, LLF has developed a multi-faceted approach where teachers are still supporting children, where teacher educators are constantly supporting the system, where all children still have access to materials, and assessments are being conducted through home visits. Thus, creating a possibility for every child to learn as if they were still in school.


The ‘Har Ghar School’ initiative over the past few months has garnered the popular support of the community, the teachers, and the Government education officials. For instance, in Chhattisgarh, in addition to engaging parents on WhatsApp, the LLF team has delivered specially designed workbooks in early literacy to the homes of children, In Rajasthan, the program involves revision with games to support the multi-lingual environment, a volunteer engagement program, and a book-circulation program, while in Haryana, almost 12,000 children are constantly supported through daily homework on WhatsApp, phone calls to parents and frequent home visits to reach struggling learners. To ensure successful implementation, a system of monitoring to include a child-wise tracking of activities is designed to provide insights on the status of learning of every child and decide a plan of action. In addition to this, assessments are planned through the program (Baseline, endline and informal assessments during home visits) to understand the learning levels of children. Deep-dive studies will help us explore immediate questions about the support provided to children during the program.  This holistic approach was developed to reach every child through the pandemic. Thus, context-specific strategies through available channels in the community are the way forward to ensure learning during the pandemic.

When will the schools re-open? When are teachers getting back to school? How long will parents cater to be the primary caregiver in their child’s education? As these questions remain unanswered, it is crucial that children have strong foundational skills and high abilities of language and literacy in the home and school languages, LLF is on the mission to scale its approach over the next few months to reach 25,000 children. How can you ensure these programs continue to support children? This is a call for action to contribute to this initiative by visiting Milaap: Language and Learning Foundation.

“Children in our village feel nervous in expressing themselves, but we have seen extensive use of mother tongue in schools in past one year has increased their confidence; and that’s why we stand with your work.’’ – Bapu Lal Rot, Volunteer, Dungarpur

Shruti Sheshadri  – The author currently works at LLF as a part of the Monitoring and Evaluation Team


English Medium in AP is an Ill-Conceived Move

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Learning good English does not require children to study through the medium of English from the early years.

The Andhra Pradesh government’s decision to switch the medium of instruction in all government schools from Telugu and Urdu to English is founded on fallacious assumptions and arguments. This ill-conceived move has the potential to condemn the next generation of children in AP to become semi-linguals, who will not have strong skills of oral communication, reading with comprehension and writing independently in any language. The arguments being put forward by the Chief Minister of AP in support of this ‘Tughlaqi’ decision are the following. One, the move will ‘strengthen’ government schools which are losing children to private schools at an alarming rate. Two, good English skills are required for the job market and introducing English as the medium of instruction will ensure that children will learn English well. Three, why should elites be able to send their children to English medium schools while the poor must make do with studying through the state language?

Will the introduction of English medium help in improving the quality of government schools? When a completely unfamiliar language is used at school, classroom teaching is reduced to choral repetition, memorization and copywriting from the textbook or the blackboard. There is little scope for meaning-making and understanding of concepts.

This is the scenario at present in most affordable private English-medium schools. The move to introduce English as the medium of instruction from Class 1 will ensure that thinking, reasoning, creativity and effective communication are completely excluded from primary classrooms. We know that active engagement and children’s talk is the foundation of all learning. And this is not possible when they study through a completely unfamiliar language. It could be argued that the situation in regional language medium schools is no better. Very true. But at least, there is scope to bring about changes in the teaching-learning process in the future. With English as a medium, children are condemned to be passive participants in the classroom.

India aspires to join PISA where reading comprehension is the main focus. Several surveys including ASER have shown that almost half the children in rural India do not learn to read well even by the end of Class 5. This is a serious learning crisis. There’s little chance that children can develop strong reading comprehension skills if they struggle even with understanding the language being used for teaching.

Will children learn much better English if it is used as the medium of instruction from preschool or Class 1? The argument that young children can learn many languages quickly in a classroom setting is incorrect. It is true that young children can acquire languages if they are exposed to them in their natural environment in meaningful contexts. But young children are not equipped to ‘learn’ unfamiliar languages that are taught formally as subjects in school. Research evidence clearly shows that older children are better placed to learn additional languages through teaching and learning. In fact, the didactic and teacher-led methods of reading from the textbooks and choral repetition are the least likely to result in developing a good understanding of a new language. It is much better to introduce English initially in the oral form with children getting opportunities to listen to meaningful words, simple conversations and stories before it is introduced as a formal subject. To learn English well, it is important that children are gradually exposed to it in an anxiety-free environment with the use of their familiar language as a support. They could be ready for learning through English after five to six years of teaching-learning of English using appropriate methods.

Studying through the medium of a language that children do not understand is subjecting them to a double disadvantage—having to try and learn the unfamiliar language and to simultaneously attempt to understand new information and concepts thrown at them in this unfamiliar language from the first day at school. It is like throwing children who come to learn swimming directly into the deep end of the pool with no support. This is especially difficult in the case of English because most children in government schools are unlikely to get any exposure to English outside school.

Why should government school children be deprived of learning through English when children in private schools have that privilege? This is a difficult argument to address from an equity perspective. I argue that the use of English as a medium of instruction should be disallowed through policy and legal enactment in preschool and early primary classes for all schools in the country.

Children should learn to speak and read and write in English well along with gaining proficiency in their more familiar languages. Children could learn English from the early years in school through oral language development and then learn English as a subject before it is introduced as the medium of instruction. Let’s work to improve the quality of teaching of English (and other languages) in all of our schools which is dismal at present. We can take this up as a country-wide mission that prepares millions of primary school teachers to learn and teach English appropriately. But, let’s not condemn young children to years of incomprehension and passivity at school struggling with memorization and copywriting because they don’t understand the language used as the medium of instruction.

Dhir Jhingran is a former IAS officer and Founder of Language and Learning Foundation.

सिद्धान्तों से कक्षाओं तक – प्रारंभिक भाषा शिक्षण कोर्स

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आभा रानी जी ने अपने व्यावसायिक जीवन की शुरुआत एक टीचर एजुकेटर के तौर पर की। टीचर एजुकेटर बनने का फैसला हैरानी का था क्योंकि अधिकांशतः लोग स्कूल निरीक्षण का काम चुनते हैं। उन्हें शुरू से पढ़ने-पढ़ाने में दिलचस्पी थी। साथ ही, उनकी माँ भी इसी क्षेत्र से जुड़ी रहीं तो माँ के नक्शे-कदम पर चलते हुए उन्होंने इस नियुक्ति को बड़ी उत्सुकता से स्वीकारा।

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सशक्त नीव के रास्ते पर

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“एक सशक्त नीव पर ही एक बुलंद इमारत तैयार की जाती है| यदि प्रारंभिक कक्षाओं में बच्चों के भाषाई कौशल और समझ को विकसित कर दिया जाए तो वे अन्य विषयों को भी आसानी से समझने के लिए तैयार हो जाते हैं|…

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